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General Biology

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

sugar molecule, phosphate group, DNA polymerase, hydrogen bonds, protein synthesis

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Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA), genetic material of all cellular organisms and most viruses. DNA carries the information needed to direct protein synthesis and replication. Protein synthesis is the production of the proteins needed by the cell or virus for its activities and development. Replication is the process by which DNA copies itself for each descendant cell or virus, passing on the information needed for protein synthesis. In most cellular organisms, DNA is organized on chromosomes located in the nucleus of the cell.

Replication

In most cellular organisms, replication of a DNA molecule takes place in the cell nucleus and occurs just before the cell divides. Replication begins with the separation of the two polynucleotide chains, each of which then acts as a template for the assembly of a new complementary chain. As the old chains separate, each nucleotide in the two chains attracts a complementary nucleotide that has been formed earlier by the cell. The nucleotides are joined to one another by hydrogen bonds to form the rungs of a new DNA molecule. As the complementary nucleotides are fitted into place, an enzyme called DNA polymerase links them together by bonding the phosphate group of one nucleotide to the sugar molecule of the adjacent nucleotide, forming the side rail of the new DNA molecule. This process continues until a new polynucleotide chain has been formed alongside the old one, forming a new double-helix molecule.



Article key phrases:

sugar molecule, phosphate group, DNA polymerase, hydrogen bonds, protein synthesis, Deoxyribonucleic Acid, cell nucleus, rungs, chromosomes, genetic material, replication, nucleus, enzyme, proteins, viruses, separation, template, rail, place, assembly, process, development, production, activities, information

 
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